Photography is the art, science, and practice of creating durable images by recording light (photons - hence, \photo\-graphy) or other electromagnetic radiation, either chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film, or electronically by means of an image sensor. Typically, a lens is used to focus the light reflected or emitted from objects into a real image on the light-sensitive surface inside a camera during a timed exposure. The result in an electronic image sensor is an electrical charge at each pixel, which is electronically processed and stored in a digital image file for subsequent display or processing. The result in a photographic emulsion is an invisible latent image, which is later chemically developed into a visible image, either negative or positive depending on the purpose of the photographic material and the method of processing. A negative image on film is traditionally used to photographically create a positive image on a paper base, known as a print, either by using an enlarger or by contact printing. Photography has many uses for business, science, manufacturing, art, recreational purposes, and mass communication.
"Photographic" redirects here. For other uses, see Photography (disambiguation) Photography is the art, science and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film, or electronically by means of an image sensor.
PhotographyGreek loanwordsOpticsPhotography1822 introductions
Stereoscopy (also called stereoscopics or 3-D imaging) refers to a technique for creating or enhancing the illusion of depth in an image by presenting two offset images separately to the left and right eye of the viewer. These two-dimensional images are then combined in the brain to give the perception of 3-D depth.
Child pornography refers to images or films (also known as child abuse images) and, in some cases, writings depicting sexually explicit activities involving a child. Abuse of the child occurs during the sexual acts which are recorded in the production of child pornography, and several professors of psychology state that memories of the abuse are maintained as long as visual records exist, are accessed, and are "exploited perversely.
Child pornographyCrimesAbuseChild pornographySex crimes
Radiography is the use of X-rays to view a non-uniformly composed material such as the human body. By using the physical properties of the ray an image can be developed which displays areas of different density and composition. A heterogeneous beam of X-rays is produced by an X-ray generator and is projected toward an object. According to the density and composition of the different areas of the object a proportion of X-rays are absorbed by the object.
Kanyakumari District (also spelled Kanniyakumari or Kanniakumari District) is a district of Tamil Nadu state, India, and is the southernmost land area of mainland India. The district is the second most urbanised district in Tamil Nadu — next only to Chennai and ahead of Coimbatore - and is the second smallest of the 32 districts of Tamil Nadu.
Kanyakumari districtDistricts of Tamil NaduKanyakumari district
Aerial photography is the taking of photographs of the ground from an elevated position. The term usually refers to images in which the camera is not supported by a ground-based structure. Cameras may be hand held or mounted, and photographs may be taken by a photographer, triggered remotely or triggered automatically. Platforms for aerial photography include fixed-wing aircraft, helicopters, balloons, blimps and dirigibles, rockets, kites, poles, parachutes, and vehicle mounted poles.
Aerial photographyPhotography by genreAerial photographyOccupations in aviationCartography
A railfan or rail buff, railway enthusiast or railway buff, or (often with a more specialized meaning, described below) trainspotter or gricer (British English), is a person interested in a recreational capacity in rail transport. Railfans of many ages can be found worldwide.
RailfanRail transportObservation hobbies
"Pinup" redirects here. For other uses of pinup or pin-up, see Pin-up (disambiguation). For the 1944 film, see Pin Up Girl (film). A pin-up girl, also known as a pin-up model, is a model whose mass-produced pictures see wide appeal as popular culture. Pin-ups are intended for informal display, e.g. meant to be "pinned-up" on a wall. Pin-up girls may be glamour models, fashion models, or actresses.
Pin-up girlSex- or gender-related stereotypesPin-up artFandomModelingCelebrity
Brattleboro, originally Brattleborough, is a town in Windham County, Vermont, United States, located in the southeast corner of the state, along the state line with New Hampshire. The population was 12,049 at the 2010 census. It is situated along the Connecticut River, at the mouth of the West River. Brattleboro is the oldest town in the state of Vermont and is noted for its vibrant arts community.
Brattleboro, VermontPopulated places in Windham County, VermontBrattleboro, VermontTowns in VermontPopulated places on the Connecticut River
Satellite imagery consists of photographs of Earth or other planets made by means of artificial satellites.
Satellite imageryPhotography by genreSatellitesSatellite broadcasting
Digital photography is a form of photography that uses an array of light sensitive sensors to capture the image focused by the lens, as opposed to an exposure on light sensitive film. The captured image is then stored as a digital file ready for digital processing (colour correction, sizing, cropping, etc. ), viewing or printing.
Digital photographyDigital photography
In photography, a negative may refer to three different things, although they are all related.
Negative (photography)Photographic film typesPhotography equipment
A digital image is a numeric representation of a two-dimensional image. Depending on whether the image resolution is fixed, it may be of vector or raster type. Without qualifications, the term "digital image" usually refers to raster images also called bitmap images.
Digital imageDigital geometryImage processing
A camera phone is a mobile phone which is able to capture still photographs. Since early in the 21st century the majority of mobile phones in use are camera phones. Most camera phones are simpler than separate digital cameras. Their usual fixed focus lenses and smaller sensors limit their performance in poor lighting. Having no physical shutter, most have a long shutter lag. Some have no flash or optical zoom or tripod screw.
Camera phoneDigital camerasMobile phones
In photography, a reversal film is a type of photographic film that produces a positive image on a transparent base. The film is processed to produce transparencies or diapositives instead of negatives and prints. Reversal film is produced in various sizes, from 35 mm roll film to 8×10" sheet film. A slide is a specially mounted individual transparency intended for projection onto a screen using a slide projector. This allows the photograph to be viewed by a large audience at once.
Reversal filmPhotographic film types
Compositing is the combining of visual elements from separate sources into single images, often to create the illusion that all those elements are parts of the same scene. Live-action shooting for compositing is variously called "chroma key", "blue screen", "green screen" and other names. Today, most, though not all, compositing is achieved through digital image manipulation.
CompositingMixed realityVisual effects
Glamour photography is a genre of photography whereby the subjects, usually female, are portrayed in a romantic or sexually alluring way. The subjects may be fully clothed or seminude, but glamour photography stops short of deliberately arousing the viewer and being pornographic photography. Glamour photography is generally a composed image of a subject in a still position.
Glamour photographyGlamour modelsPhotography by genreErotic photography
"Color film" redirects here. For the motion picture equivalent, see Color motion picture film. Color photography is photography that uses media capable of representing colors, which are traditionally produced chemically during the photographic processing phase. By contrast, black-and-white (monochrome) photography records only a single channel of luminance (brightness) and uses media capable only of showing shades of gray.
Color photography1907 introductionsPhotography by genreColorScottish inventions
Fine art photography refers to photographs that are created in accordance with the creative vision of the photographer as artist. Fine art photography stands in contrast to photojournalism, which provides a visual account for news events, and commercial photography, the primary focus of which is to advertise products or services.
Fine-art photographyPhotography by genreArt genres
Photo manipulation is the application of image editing techniques to photographs in order to create an illusion or deception (in contrast to mere enhancement or correction), through analog or digital means.
Photo manipulationDigital artPhotojournalism controversiesPhotographic techniques
Photomontage is the process and result of making a composite photograph by cutting and joining a number of other photographs. The composite picture was sometimes photographed so that the final image is converted back into a seamless photographic print. A similar method, although one that does not use film, is realized today through image-editing software. This latter technique is referred to by professionals as "compositing", and in casual usage is often called "photoshopping".
Astrophotography is a specialized type of photography that entails recording images of astronomical objects and large areas of the night sky. The first photograph of an astronomical object was taken in 1840, but it was not until the late 19th century that advances in technology allowed for detailed stellar photography.
AstrophotographyAstrophotographyPhotography by genreAstronomical imagingSpace art
Instant film is a type of photographic film first introduced by Polaroid that is designed to be used in an instant camera (and, with accessory hardware, with many professional film cameras). The film contains the chemicals needed for developing and fixing the photo, and the instant camera exposes and initiates the developing process after a photograph has been taken.
Instant filmInstant photographyFilm formatsPhotographic film processes
Stock photography is the supply of photographs licensed for specific uses. It is used to fulfill the needs of creative assignments instead of hiring a photographer. Today, stock images can be presented in searchable online databases. They can be purchased and delivered online. Often, they are produced in studios using a wide variety of models posing as professionals, stereotypes, expressing stereotypical emotions and gesticulations or involving pets.
Stock photographyPhoto archivesStock photographyPhotography by genre
A mug shot, mugshot, police photograph, or booking photograph, is a photographic portrait taken after one is arrested. The purpose of the mug shot is to allow law enforcement to have a photographic record of the arrested individual to allow for identification by victims and investigators. Most mug shots are two-part, with one side-view photo, and one front-view. They may be compiled into a mug book in order to determine the identity of a criminal.
Mug shotCriminal procedurePersonal identification documentsPhotography by genreMug shotsLaw enforcement techniques
A pinhole camera is a simple camera without a lens and with a single small aperture – effectively a light-proof box with a small hole in one side. Light from a scene passes through this single point and projects an inverted image on the opposite side of the box. The human eye in bright light acts similarly, as do cameras using small apertures. Up to a certain point, the smaller the hole, the sharper the image, but the dimmer the projected image.
Pinhole cameraCameras by type
Fashion photography has been in existence since 1839. There was always the existence of fashionable dress, but the idea of taking photographs to help sell clothing and accessories had just come into play. Fashion photography is a genre of photography devoted to displaying clothing and other fashion items. Fashion photography is most often conducted for advertisements or fashion magazines such as Vogue, Vanity Fair, or Elle.
Fashion photographyFashion photographyPhotography by genre
Documentary photography usually refers to a popular form of photography used to chronicle significant and historical events. It is typically covered in professional photojournalism, or real life reportage, but it may also be an amateur, artistic, or academic pursuit. The photographer attempts to produce truthful, objective, and usually candid photography of a particular subject, most often pictures of people.
Documentary photographyPhotojournalismPhotography by genreDocumentariesMuseum of Modern Art exhibitions
Panoramic photography is a technique of photography, using specialized equipment or software, that captures images with elongated fields of view. It is sometimes known as wide format photography. The term has also been applied to a photograph that is cropped to a relatively wide aspect ratio. While there is no formal division between "wide-angle" and "panoramic" photography, "wide angle" normally refers to a type of lens, but using this lens type does not necessarily make an image a panorama.
Panoramic photographyPanorama photographyPhotography by genre
Motion blur is the apparent streaking of rapidly moving objects in a still image or a sequence of images such as a movie or animation. It results when the image being recorded changes during the recording of a single frame, either due to rapid movement or long exposure.
Motion blurAnimation techniquesScience of photographyPhotographic techniques
Rated R (Rihanna album)
Rated R is the fourth studio album by Barbadian recording artist Rihanna, first released November 20, 2009, on Def Jam Recordings. The album is a musical distance from her previous effort Good Girl Gone Bad (2007), which contained up-tempo and ballad-oriented songs, and it heavily incorporated pop and dance-pop musical styles.
Rated R (Rihanna album)Albums produced by Chase & StatusDef Jam Recordings albums2009 albumsAlbums produced by StargateAlbums produced by will.i.amAlbums produced by Ne-YoAlbums produced by The-DreamEnglish-language albumsRihanna albumsAlbums produced by Carl Sturken and Evan RogersAlbums produced by Tricky StewartAlbums produced by Justin Timberlake
Top: tree photographed in the near infrared range. Bottom: same tree in the visible part of the spectrum. In infrared photography, the film or image sensor used is sensitive to infrared light. The part of the spectrum used is referred to as near-infrared to distinguish it from far-infrared, which is the domain of thermal imaging. Wavelengths used for photography range from about 700 nm to about 900 nm.
Infrared photographyInfrared imagingPhotography by genrePhotographic processes
The albumen print, also called albumen silver print, was invented in 1850 by Louis Désiré Blanquart-Evrard, and was the first commercially exploitable method of producing a photographic print on a paper base from a negative. It used the albumen found in egg whites to bind the photographic chemicals to the paper and became the dominant form of photographic positives from 1855 to the turn of the 20th century, with a peak in the 1860-90 period.
Albumen printPhotographic processes dating from the 19th century
Hand-colouring of photographs
Hand-colouring (or hand-coloring) refers to any method of manually adding colour to a black-and-white photograph, generally either to heighten the realism of the photograph or for artistic purposes. Hand-colouring is also known as hand painting or overpainting. Typically, watercolours, oils, crayons or pastels, and other paints or dyes are applied to the image surface using brushes, fingers, cotton swabs or airbrushes.
Hand-colouring of photographsColorPhotographic techniques
Street photography is a type of documentary photography that features subjects in candid situations within public places such as streets, parks, beaches, malls, political conventions and other settings. Street photography uses the techniques of straight photography in that it shows a pure vision of something, like holding up a mirror to society.
Street photographyPhotography by genreStreet culture
War photography captures photographs of armed conflict and life in war-torn areas. Although photographs can provide a more direct representation than paintings or drawings, they are sometimes manipulated, creating an image that is not objectively journalistic.
War photographyPhotography by genreWar photography
A stroboscope, also known as a strobe, is an instrument used to make a cyclically moving object appear to be slow-moving, or stationary. The principle is used for the study of rotating, reciprocating, oscillating or vibrating objects. Machine parts and vibrating strings are common examples. Intense flashing/pulsing light of various frequencies can trigger epileptic seizures in people who suffer from photosensitive epilepsy.
StroboscopeMedical imagingMeasuring instruments
Death of Dale Earnhardt
Dale Earnhardt was an American race car driver who gained fame driving stock cars for NASCAR and winning seven championships. He won his first Daytona 500 in 1998. He was involved in a car accident during the last lap of the 2001 Daytona 500 at Daytona International Speedway on February 18, 2001. He was taken to Halifax Medical Center, where he was pronounced dead at 5:16 p.m. after sustaining blunt force trauma to the head. Earnhardt was 49 years old.
Death of Dale Earnhardt2001 in Florida2001 in NASCARFilmed deaths in sportsHistory of FloridaDale EarnhardtDeaths by personNASCAR controversies
A film still (sometimes called a publicity still or a production still) is a photograph taken on or off the set of a movie or television program during production. The photos were taken by studio photographers for promotional purposes. Such stills consisted of posed portraits, used for public display or free fan handouts, which are sometimes autographed. They can also consist of posed or candid images taken on the set during production, and may include stars, crew members or directors at work.
Film stillFilm and video terminologyHome video supplementsPhotography by genreFilm and video technology
Landscape photography is intended to show different spaces within the world, sometimes vast and unending, but other times microscopic. Photographs typically capture the presence of nature and are often free of man-made obstructions. Landscape photographers often attempt to document the space as well as convey an appreciation of the scenery.
Landscape photographyLandscape photography
Erotic photography is a style of art photography of an erotic and even a sexually suggestive or sexually provocative nature. Though the subjects of erotic photography are usually completely or mostly unclothed, that is not a requirement. Erotic photography dating from 1835 until the 1960s is often referred to in the years since as vintage photography. Erotic photography should be distinguished from pornographic photography, which is of a sexually explicit nature.
Erotic photographyErotic photography
The Cottingley Fairies appear in a series of five photographs taken by Elsie Wright and Frances Griffiths, two young cousins who lived in Cottingley, near Bradford in England. In 1917, when the first two photographs were taken, Elsie was 16 years old and Frances was 10. The pictures came to the attention of writer Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, who used them to illustrate an article on fairies he had been commissioned to write for the Christmas 1920 edition of The Strand Magazine.
Cottingley FairiesHoaxes in the United KingdomWorks originally published in The Strand MagazinePhotography in the United Kingdom1917 in EnglandBradford20th-century hoaxesParanormal hoaxesBlack-and-white photographsFairiesArthur Conan DoyleForteana
Nude photography is a style of art photography which depicts the nude human body as a study. Nude photography should be distinguished from glamour photography, which places more emphasis on the model and her/his sexuality, and treats the model as the primary subject. Nude photography should also be distinguished from erotic photography, which has a sexually suggestive component. Nude photography is also distinguished from pornographic photography, which is of a sexually explicit nature.
Nude photographyNude photographyNudity
A photo op (sometimes written as photo opp), short for photograph opportunity (photo opportunity), is an opportunity to take a memorable and effective photograph of a politician, a celebrity, or a notable event. Among amateur photographers, the term is used to refer to any opportunity to take good photos. The term was coined by the administration of US President Richard Nixon. William Safire credited its coinage to Bruce Whelihan, an aide to Nixon Press Secretary Ron Ziegler.
Photo opPublic relations terminologyPhotography by genre
Xunantunich (pronounced /ʃunantunit͡ʃ/) is an Ancient Mayan archaeological site in western Belize, about 80 miles (130 km) west of Belize City, in the Cayo District. Xunantunich is located atop a ridge above the Mopan River, well within sight of the Guatemala border – which is a mere 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) to the west. It served as a Maya civic ceremonial center in the Late and Terminal Classic periods to the Belize Valley region.
XunantunichMaya sites in BelizeMopan RiverFormer populated places in BelizeCayo DistrictMesoamerican pyramids
Monochrome photography is photography where the image produced has a single hue, rather than recording the colours of the object that was photographed. It includes all forms of black-and-white photography, which produce images containing tones of grey ranging from black to white. Most modern black-and-white films, called panchromatic films, record the entire visible spectrum. Some films are orthochromatic, recording visible light wavelengths shorter than 590 nanometres.
Monochrome photographyPhotography by genreBlack-and-white media
Image hosting service
An image hosting service allows individuals to upload images to an Internet website. The image host will then store the image onto its server, and show the individual different types of code to allow others to view that image. Hosting services have the potential ability to identify when and where their images are being used. When an image file is accessed, the image host is capable of logging the date and the general numeric internet address of the request.
Image hosting serviceImage hosting
Schlieren photography is a visual process that is used to photograph the flow of fluids of varying density. Invented by the German physicist August Toepler in 1864 to study supersonic motion, it is widely used in aeronautical engineering to photograph the flow of air around objects. Its role is changing due to the increasing use of computational fluid dynamics, which reduces the need for all such experimental fluid flow measurement techniques.
Aerial archaeology is the study of archaeological remains by examining them from altitude. The advantages of gaining a good aerial view of the ground had been long appreciated by archaeologists as a high viewpoint permits a better appreciation of fine details and their relationships within the wider site context. Early investigators attempted to gain birdseye views of sites using hot air balloons, scaffolds or cameras attached to kites.
Aerial archaeologyArchaeological sub-disciplinesAerial photographyMethods and principles in archaeology
Long-exposure photography or time-exposure photography involves using a long-duration shutter speed to sharply capture the stationary elements of images while blurring, smearing, or obscuring the moving elements.
Long-exposure photographyPhotography by genrePhotographic techniques
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